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Download A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements PDF

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Additional resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides

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1 IONIZATION CHAMBERS / 23 length is a function of the density of the gas in an ionization chamber. Therefore, in unsealed chambers, corrections of the ionization current to standard temperature and pressure may have to be made when the range of the primary radiation is greater than the dimensions of the chamber. With the pressure ionization chambers now often in use, and which mostly contain argon at a pressure of some 20 atmospheres, this problem does not arise. 2 Pulse Ionization Chamber An incident particle depositing all its energy in the gas of an ionization chamber will give rise to a number of ion pairs which is proportional to the energy deposited.

Where highenergy beta particles produce excited and ionized solvent molecules which are relatively isolated from each other, alpha and low-energy beta particles produce them in close proximity in regions of high ionization density in which energy is dissipated in nonradiative transitions. This process is referred to by Birks (1964) as ionization quenching. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the various energy-transfer steps in the liquid-scintillation process Birks (1964, 1970) has developed an expression relating the pulse amplitude at the anode to the energy deposited in the scintillator.

Often its geometry is cylindrical, with a cylindrical cathode enclosing the volume of gas and an axial insulated rod anode. The anode is also frequently in the form of a hollow cylinder into which a photon-emitting radioactive source can be inserted for calibration. Charged particles moving through matter undergo inelastic collisions with atoms or molecules. In a gas, these particles produce positive ions and electrons which, in the absence of an electric field, will recombine. In some gases the electrons may become attached to neutral molecules to form negative ions.

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