By Ilkka Savolainen, Markus Tähtinen (auth.), Pekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies (eds.)
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Extra resources for Acidification in Finland
Emission sources included in this study are traffic and mobile machinery, energy generation, industry and other anthropogenic sources. The emissions from natural biological and chemical processes are not estimated. NO x emissions in Finland in 1980 were 283,600 t N0 2 a-I and in 1983247,700 t N0 2 a-I. The share of traffic of the total anthropogenic emission was 50 and 60%, respectively. Introduction In order to determine the total emissions of nitrogen oxides in Finland the sources were divided into four groups: - traffic and mobile machinery - power and heat generation - industrial processes - other anthropogenic sources The emissions from natural biological and chemical processes were not covered by the study.
The Finnish ammonia emissions cannot account for all the deposition. More than half of the deposition is estimated to originate from other countries, mainly from the Soviet Union. The current ammonia models cannot Ammonia Emissions in the 1980s 39 express the transportation and deposition accurately, so these figures should be viewed with caution. References Beauchamp EG (1983) Nitrogen loss from sewage sludges and manures applied to agriculturallands. In: Freney JR, Simpson JR (eds) Gaseous loss of nitrogen from plant-soil systems.
1984). It is estimated that in fields and pastures, the total annual loss of nitrogen from manure is about 17,000 tons (Table 2) (Keranen and Niskanen 1987). ). 5 million in 1988. The fur animals are mostly minks and foxes, the dung of which is very rich in nitrogen. 9 kg for mink (Table 1). The dung of fur animals drops to the ground beneath the cages and remains there for some time. According to the instructions given by the Finnish health authorities, the dung should be removed at least seven times a year.