By S. Isaacs, H. Søeberg (auth.), Jan F. M. Van Impe, Peter A. Vanrolleghem, Dirk M. Iserentant (eds.)
This publication is the outgrowth of the COMETT II direction on complicated Instru mentation, information Interpretation, and regulate of Biotechnological tactics geared up via the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the Universiteit Gent, and held at Gent, Belgium, October 1994. The editors of the current quantity have been very lucky to discover all invited audio system ready to jot down cutting-edge expositions in accordance with their lec tures. unique thank you are because of them all. the result's an account of modern advances in instrumentation, information interpretation, and version dependent op timization and regulate of bioprocesses. For somebody attracted to this emerg ing box, this article is of worth and gives accomplished stories in addition to new and significant tendencies and instructions for the longer term, inspired and illustrated through a wealth of purposes. The typesetting of all this fabric represented an important volume of labor. i'm such a lot thankful to my spouse, Myriam Uyttendaele, and to Kurt Gheys, who did many of the proof-reading. Their efforts have elevated much the uniformity common and presentation of the various manuscripts. Many thank you additionally to the co-editors, for his or her persevered help. Kluwer educational Publishers is gratefully said for publishing this booklet, therefore contributing to the move of the newest examine effects into huge scale commercial applications.
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Additional info for Advanced Instrumentation, Data Interpretation, and Control of Biotechnological Processes
The logic which controls the FIA system ensures that sample injection occurs at the start of a full second according to the hardware real time clock of the computer. It is important that the computer's hardware rather than software clock be employed since the accuracy of the latter is insufficient for this purpose. The synchronous motors of the pumps lock the pump speed to the line frequency, which is accurately controlled by the power plant. Since the injection always occurs at the start of a full second, and since the pumps are driven at precisely one piston movement per cycle, each injection occurs at the same point in a piston cycle.
The sample position which is to be injected is determined by an element in a vector which defines the measurement sequence of each measurement cycle. Currently this vector is composed of 8 elements defining the sample position sequence: standard solution, SP3, SPl, SP3, SP2, SP3, SP4, SP3. The standard solution is measured at the start of each measure- 36 1. Flow Injection Analysis ment cycle, and the thus calculated calibration constants are used during the remainder of the measurement cycle to calculate the sample analyte concentrations.
The conductance of a solution is a measure of the concentration of ions present, their charge and their mobilities. Thus a solution containing a high concentration of highly charged and highly mobile ions will have a high conductance. The BM displays conductances in mS ( millisiemens). 2 the electric field is only going in one direction; one can, of course, change the field direction. 2. 3B). As the extent of the charge separations induced by the field is the same irrespective of which direction the field is going in, the capacitance of the suspension is also not changed by changing the direction of the field per se.