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Download Aerodynamics: Fundamentals of Theory, Aerodynamics of an by N.F. Krasnov PDF

By N.F. Krasnov

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Read or Download Aerodynamics: Fundamentals of Theory, Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and Wing; Methods of Aerodynamic Calculation PDF

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Extra resources for Aerodynamics: Fundamentals of Theory, Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and Wing; Methods of Aerodynamic Calculation

Example text

To the appearance of the relative motion of the fluid particles in the layers. In accordance with a hypothesis first advanced by I. Newton, the shear stress for given conditions is proportional to the velocity of this motion per unit distance between layers with particles moving 'relative to one another. If the distance between the layers is An. e. when the layers are in contact, equals the ,derivative aulan known as the normal velocity gradient. On the basis ,of this hypothesis. 1. 7) where [t is a proportionality factor depending on the properties of a fluid.

1') and my (~). Let us consider static rolling stability. Assume that in steady motion at the angle of attack ad the craft is turned about the axis Ox through a certain rolling angle 1'. This turn with a constant orientation of the axis Ox relative to the velocity vector V canses the appearance of the angle of attack a ~ ad ~os l' and the sideslip angle ~ ~ ad sin 1'. The slip, in turn, causes a rolling moment to appear whose coefficient mx = m~fJ ~ m~ad sin 1'. Differentiating with respect to 1'.

1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 47· Fig. 4 Drag polar of the second kind nates (the pole) to the point of the polar diagram corresponding to the chosen angle of attack. We can use a polar to determine the optimal angle of attack aopt corresponding to the maximum lift-to-drag ratio: K max = tan (CLiO'}> aopt if we draw a tangent to the polar from the origin of coordinates. The characteristic points of a polar include the point cYamax corresponding to the maximum lift force that is achieved at the critical angle of attack aero We can mark a point on the curve determining the minimum drag coefficient Cx a min and the corresponding values of the angle of attack and the lift coefficient.

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