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Download Aquatic chemistry : chemical equilibria and rates in natural by Werner Stumm PDF

By Werner Stumm

"Like the former variations, this considerably revised and up to date 3rd version has been written to supply readers with a fantastic figuring out of the overall chemical ideas underlying average water chemistry: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics, acids and bases, dissolved carbon dioxide, atmosphere-water interactions, steel ions in aqueous ideas, precipitation and dissolution, oxidation and reduction, Read more...


this can be a entire creation to the thoughts, purposes and strategies of aquatic chemistry. it's been revised and up-to-date to concentration upon pollutants and its keep an eye on, in addition to the processes Read more...

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Example text

Thermodynamically speaking, reactions involving only pure phases proceed until exhaustion of that substance which is present in limiting amount. For mixtures, the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of a reaction and the composition of the system is obtained by substituting the expression for the chemical potential in terms of the activity of a species i H = M«° + RT In {i} (50) into the expression for AG for a reaction E, v{M{ — 0, AG — ZJ v^ (45) 42 Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics The direct result is AG = S Vitf + RTYA v{ In {/} (57) {/}" (58) or AG = AG° + RTlnU where AG° - S Pitf (59) is the standard Gibbs free energy change of the reaction.

The governing principles of axioms are the same: the first and second laws. In chemical thermodynamics applied to aquatic systems, we deal with changes in composition, that is, changes in number of moles of species, dnh resulting from chemical reactions and transfers of species between phases, and with equilibrium compositions of aqueous phases, sedimentary phases, and atmospheres. For example, we might wish to find the equilibrium composition of the three-phase system comprising atmospheric carbon dioxide, water, and calcium carbonate.

This relation is the basis of constant pressure calorimetry, the constant-pressure heat capacity being Cp = (dq/dT)p. The relationship qp = AH is valid only in the absence of external work, w'. When the system does external work, the first law must include dw'. Then, the heat transferred to the system under constant-pressure conditions is qp = AH + w'. Thus, if a given chemical reaction has an enthalpy change of — 50 kJ mol - 1 and does 100 kJ m o F 1 of electrical work, the heat transferred to the system is - 5 0 + 100 = 50 kJ mol - 1 .

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