By Ruth Garrett Millikan
Written by way of one in every of brand new such a lot artistic and cutting edge philosophers, Ruth Garrett Millikan, this publication examines uncomplicated empirical ideas; how they're bought, how they functionality, and the way they've been misrepresented within the conventional philosophical literature. In an intensive departure from present philosophical and mental theories of recommendations, this ebook presents the 1st in-depth dialogue at the mental act of reidentification. will probably be of curiosity to a wide variety of scholars of philosophy, in particular these drawn to the applying of evolutionary thought to analytic philosophy.
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Additional info for On Clear and Confused Ideas: An Essay about Substance Concepts
For example, according to Gelman and Coley (1991), people develop natural kind concepts . . with the implicit . . goal of learning as much as possible about the objects being classified. . For example, if we learn that X is a “cat,” we infer that it has many important properties in common with other cats, including diet, body temperature, genetic structure, and internal organs. We can even induce previously unknown properties. For example, if we discover that one cat has a substance called “cytosine” inside, we may then decide that other cats also contain this substance.
For example, if we learn that X is a “cat,” we infer that it has many important properties in common with other cats, including diet, body temperature, genetic structure, and internal organs. We can even induce previously unknown properties. For example, if we discover that one cat has a substance called “cytosine” inside, we may then decide that other cats also contain this substance. . (p. ” Clearly a concept having this sort of potential does not emerge by ontological accident. If a term is to have genuine “rich inductive potential,” it had better attach not just to an accidental pattern of correlated properties, but to properties correlated for a good reason.
Either way, there is a deep similarity between individuals and many historical kinds. Because of the rich ontological ground of induction on which biological species rest, one can run numerous inductions over the members of any species, learning about most members from observing one or a few. The elementary student learns about sulphur from experiments with one sample. Similarly, she learns about frogkind by dissecting one frog, and about the human’s susceptibility to operant conditioning by conditioning one friend to blink for smiles.